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Keeping indoor air clean by vacuuming carpets once or “Children with Asthma Inactive Due to Parental Health Beliefs generic flonase 50mcg online allergy west, Disease Severity discount 50 mcg flonase allergy forecast virginia. Those with asthma should avoid exposure to tobacco smoke and should not “Identification of New Asthma Genes Demonstrates Model for exercise outside when air pollution levels are high. Children Diagnosed With Asthma, New sufferers who live in heavily polluted areas, moving to less Report Finds. Cornea Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research in Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology. Odle Horizontal line out of focus Astigmatism Definition Astigmatism is a problem of visual distortion caused by a misshapen cornea. If the cornea does not have the proper shape, the eye is unable to properly focus an image. Description Light rays entering a normal eye come to a point of Astigmatism corrected by lens focus on the retina through a transparent, dome-shaped layer called the cornea. In astigmatism there is unequal Astigmatism can be treated by the use of cylindrical lenses. Usually the degree of astigmatism re- used to determine the presence of astigmatism. Factors such as stress, continual reading in dim lighting, or excessive close-up work may also contribute The Bates method or other type of visual training to the development of astigmatism. It is sometimes may be helpful in improving vision and reducing symp- caused by pressure from chalazion, a condition that toms. The homeopathic remedies Ruta graveolens (from causes the eyelid to swell; from scars on the cornea; or common rue) and Apis mellifica (from the honey bee) from keratoconus, a condition that involves swelling of can be used to relieve eyestrain, one of the main symp- the cornea. The main symptom of astigmatism is blurred toms and possible contributors to astigmatism. There may also be a history of Acupuncture treatment or Traditional Chinese headaches, eye strain, fatigue, and double vision. Certain treatments can strengthen and Diagnosis correct the skewing of the Liver qi. It is sometimes associated with cer- test, given by an optometrist or opthalmologist, is tain organs. Chalazion—A condition in which clogging of the Expected results Meibomiam gland causes a cyst inside the eyelid. Effects of astigmatism can generally be greatly im- Keratoconus—A progressive condition in which proved with eyeglasses or contact lenses. The major risks of surgery include Refraction—The turning or bending of light waves chronic visual problems, injury to the eye tissue, infec- as the light passes from one medium or layer to tion, and over- or under-correction, which would still another. Complications may require the to bend light so that an image is focused onto the use of medication or further surgery. The lenses are made so as Minimizes Tissue Removal, not Ideal for High-Correction to counteract the shape of the sections of cornea that are Cases. Contact lenses that are used to correct OTHER astigmatism are called toric lenses. In radial keratotomy (RK) for astigmatism, cuts are made into the cornea with a dia- mond blade instrument. In photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), a laser is used to improve the shape of the cornea by removing micro-thin slices. Laser assisted in situ ker- atomileusis (LASIK) is the most recently developed type Aston-Patterning of refractive surgery. A flap of the cornea is cut with a Definition laser and then the corneal tissue underneath is shaved to improve the shape. Aston-Patterning is an integrated system of move- ment education, bodywork, ergonomic adjustments, and Doctors continue to improve LASIK techniques. In fitness training that recognizes the relationship between 2002, a cross-cylinder method was developed in refrac- the body and mind for well being.

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Buckup generic flonase 50 mcg mastercard allergy elimination, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved buy flonase 50 mcg overnight delivery allergy medicine 75. Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Tests Adams Forward Bend Test Assesses structural or functional scoliosis. Assessment: This test is performed in patients with detectable scolio- sis of uncertain etiology or as a screening examination in patients with a family history of scoliotic posture. If the scoliotic posture improves during forward bending, then the condition is a functional scoliosis; where the scoliotic deformity remains with the same projection of the ribs and the lumbar distortion observed in upright posture, the con- dition is true scoliosis with structural changes. Kyphosis Test on Hands and Knees Procedure: The patient is asked to kneel down and stretch out his or her arms as far forward as possible on the floor. Assessment: This posture will correct a flexible kyphotic deformity of the thoracic spine. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. A similar technique can also be used to evaluate segmental function in the lumbar spine. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Assessment: During the test, the patient will initially feel tension in the sacroiliac joint, then in the lumbosacral junction, and finally in the lumbar spine. This test should be performed where changes in pelvic ligaments or intervertebral disks are suspected. Pain in the sacroiliac joint, lumbosacral pain, or lumbar pain without radiating radicular pain suggests degenerative changes and/or ligamentous insuf• ciency. With a reflex mallet, the examiner taps on the spinous processes of the lumbar spine and on the paraspinal musculature. Assessment: Localized pain can indicate irritation of the involved spinal segments as a result of degenerative inflammatory changes. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Assessment: This sudden pressure on the distal thigh causes reflexive contraction of the iliopsoas with traction on the transverse processes of the lumbar spine. Patients will report pain in the presence of changes in the lumbar spine (spondylarthritis, spondylitis, or disk herniation) or in the sacroiliac joint. The Lasègue straight leg raising test is performed until the patient begins to feel discomfort, then the exam- iner lets go of the leg from this position. Assessment: Suddenly and unexpectedly letting go of the leg precip- itates reflexive contraction of the muscles of the back and buttocks. It is primarily the iliopsoas that contracts, placing traction on the transverse processes of the lumbar spine. Patients will report pain in the presence Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. For a differential diagnosis it must be borne in mind that this test can also intensify visceral pain such as that caused by appendicitis. Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. The examiner palpates the articular processes or laminae of the vertebrae in question with his or her index and middle fingers. With the ulnar edge of the other hand, which is held perpendicularly over the palpating fingers, the examiner repeatedly presses lightly in a posteroanterior direction. The palpating fingers conduct this light springing pressure to the articular processes or lam- inae of the vertebrae in question. Assessment: Where joint function is intact, the articular processes or laminae will be resilient. Lack of or excessive resiliency is a sign of abnormal segmental mobility, in the former case a blockade and in the latter case hyper- mobility. However, this test is also a provocative test for the posterior longitudinal ligament in particular and will result in an increase in the deep, dull low back pain that is typical of this structure and is dif• cult to localize. Assessment: Where segmental dysfunction in the lumbar spine is present, active extension of the lumbar spine will elicit or increase pain. The passive extension with an additional rotational motion allows the examiner to assess diminished segmental and/or regional mobility.

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This is measured as a decrease in the A-P diameter generic flonase 50 mcg on-line allergy testing information, which indicates that look- ing down on the top of the skull order flonase 50 mcg visa allergy forecast fresno ca, the diameter of the head Diagnosis is less than normal in the front-to-back orientation. Individuals affected with this condition have poorly The diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome is made based formed eye sockets and foreheads. This causes a smaller on the presence of the bicoronal and sagittal skull mal- than normal sized eye socket that can cause eyesight formation, which produces a cone-shaped or short and complications. These complications include damage to broad skull, accompanied by partially fused or extra fin- the optic nerve, which can cause a loss of visual clarity; gers or toes (syndactly or polydactyly). Skull x rays bulging eyeballs resulting from the shallow orbits and/or a CT scan may also be used to diagnose the skull (exophthalmus), which usually damages the eye cornea; malformations correctly. Other genetic disorders are also widely spaced eyes; and a narrowing of the sinuses and characterized by the same types of skull deformities and tear ducts that can cause inflammation of the mucous some genetic tests are available for them. Thus, positive membranes that line the exposed portion of the eyeball results on these tests can rule out the possibility of (conjunctivitis). In the most severe cases of Carpenter to produce pictures of the fetus, is generally used to syndrome, it may be necessary to treat feeding and respi- examine the development of the skull in the second and ratory problems that are associated with the malformed third months of pregnancy, but the images are not, as of palate and sinuses. Obesity is associated with Carpenter 2000, always clear enough to properly diagnose the type syndrome and dietary management throughout the of skull deformity, if present. Extra fingers or toes (polydactyly) may often be surgically removed shortly Treatment and management after birth. Surgical procedures also exist to correct some of the Operations to correct the skull malformations asso- heart defects associated with Carpenter syndrome, as ciated with Carpenter syndrome should be performed well as the testicles disorder of affected males. This is because abnormal opening of the large intestine near the navel modifying the skull bones is much easier at that age and (umbilical hernia or omphalocele) can also be treated by new bone growth, as well as the required bone reshaping, surgery. Also, the facial features are still highly mental delays are available for affected patients. Follow-up support by pediatric, Prognosis psychological, neurological, surgical, and genetic spe- Carpenter syndrome is not usually fatal if immediate cialists may be necessary. In all but the most severe and inoperable vision problems that require consultation with an oph- cases of craniosynostosis, it is possible that the affected thalmologist, or doctor specialized in the treatment of individual may attain a greatly improved physical appear- such problems. Depending on damage to the nervous system, the necessary if the ears and the brain have been affected. If rapidity of treatment, and the potential brain damage the palate is severely malformed, dental consultation may from excess pressure on the brain caused by skull mal- GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 207 formation, certain affected individuals may display vary- possibly oats. The phy of the fetal brain: detection of abnormal morphology type of inheritance pattern that celiac disease follows is and circulation. First, the patient must have a genetic predisposition to ORGANIZATIONS develop the disorder. PO Box 280297, Dallas, ment acts as a stimulus to “trigger” their immune system, TX 75243-4522. For conditions with multifactorial inheritance, people Craniosynostosis and Parents Support. Or, they may require more exposure to the stimulus WEBSITES before developing the disease than someone with a Craniosupport. Cat cry syndrome see Cri du chat Demographics syndrome Celiac disease may be discovered at any age, from infancy through adulthood. The disorder is more com- monly found among white Europeans or in people of European descent. Estimates vary from one in 5,000, to Definition as many as one in every 300 individuals with this back- ground. The prevalence of celiac disease seems to be dif- Celiac disease is a disease of the digestive system ferent from one European country to another, and that damages the small intestine and interferes with the between Europe and the United States. A recent study of random blood samples tested for celiac Description disease in the United States showed one in 250 testing Celiac disease occurs when the body reacts abnor- positive. It is clearly underdiagnosed, probably due to the mally to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and symptoms being attributed to another problem, or lack of 208 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS knowledge about celiac disease by physicians and laboratories. KEY TERMS Because celiac disease has a hereditary influence, close relatives (especially first degree relatives, such as Antibodies—Proteins that provoke the immune children, siblings, and parents) have a higher risk of system to attack particular substances. The chance that a first disease, the immune system makes antibodies to a degree relative of someone with celiac disease will have component of gluten. Gluten—A protein found in wheat, rye, barley, As more is learned about celiac disease, it becomes and oats.

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Knowledge representation and retrieval using conceptual graphs and free text document self-organisation techniques safe 50mcg flonase allergy testing in dogs. Efficient literature searching: A core skill for the practice of evidence-based medicine flonase 50mcg generic allergy shots sore arm. Integrating query of relational and textual data in clinical databases: A case study. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Interactive Information Retrieval Towards Effective Knowledge Management 69 Hearst, M. Proceedings of 19th ACM International Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (pp. Indexing biomedical documents: From thesaural to knowledge- based retrieval systems. Text categorization with support vector machines: Learning with many relevant features. Special Issue on Neural Networks for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 574-585. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, July (pp. Annual Conference of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), 445-449. Power of expression in the electronic patient record: Structured data or narrative text? Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Understanding and using the medical subject headings (MeSH) vocabulary to perform literature searches. Towards routine automatic pathway discovery from on-line scientific text abstracts. GeneWays: A system for extracting, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating mo- lecular pathway data. Spatialization methods: A cartographic research agenda for non-geographic information visualization. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Interactive Information Retrieval Towards Effective Knowledge Management 71 Spyrou, S. Exploring the degree of concordance of coded and textual data in answering clinical queries from a clinical data repository. An interactive system for finding complementary literatures: A stimulus to scientific discovery. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. This chapter provides an overview of some of the daily privacy and security issues currently faced by health services, as health knowledge system developments risk outpacing medico-legal and professional structures. The focus is a mixture of philosophy and pragmatics with regard to the key “privacy” and “security” issues that challenge stakeholders as they try to implement and maintain an increasing array of electronic health knowledge management systems. The chapter utilises a number of evolving simple visual and mnemonic models or concepts based on observations, reflections and understanding of the literature. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. The Challenge of Privacy and Security 73 Introduction The focus of this chapter is largely shaped by the common themes and thoughts expressed, and dilemmas experienced, within the environment in which the Author works. However many of these local opinions are shaped by more universal forces, media, and experiences, and common themes, concepts and challenges can be found internationally, both within health, and other complex systems that handle personal information (Ander- son, 1996; Coiera & Clarke, 2003; Tang, 2000). Health Knowledge Management systems are assisted by processes that provide complete, accurate, and timely information. Issues of security and privacy have the capacity to facilitate or inhibit this process. However, there are a myriad of perspectives with regard to the meaning, significance, and interrelation of the terms privacy, security, and health knowledge system, which shall be discussed throughout the chapter. The Electronic Patient Record term typically aims to describe the technology or software that stores the record of care or provides a degree of decision support.

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