By N. Tuwas. Louisiana Baptist Universty. 2018.
Diffusion of bupivicaine into the intercostal mus- significant benefit over intravenous delivery cheap 5mg kemadrin overnight delivery treatment 5th disease. Kowalski SE order 5 mg kemadrin symptoms iron deficiency, Bradley BD, Greengrass RA, Freedman J, and local anesthetic effects. Is there a bilateral block of the tho- should be reabsorbed within 24–48 hours and is rarely racic sympathetic chain after unilateral intrapleural analge- clinically significant. The falling column: A new technique sion setup will limit the incidence of infection. Kaukinen S, Kaukinen L, Kataja J, Karkkainen S, Monitoring of blood levels for local anesthetic may Heikkinen A. Interpleural analgesia for postoperative pain relief in renal surgery patients. A randomized double-blind study of interpleural analgesia after cholecys- tectomy. Distribution of local REFERENCES anesthetics injected in the interpleural space, studied by computerized tomography. Side effects and com- ing analgesia during percutaneous biliary interventional pro- plications related to interpleural analgesia: An update. Eric Rey Amador, MD Persistent paresthesias are rare and, if they do occur, Sean Mackey, MD normally resolve within 6 weeks. GENERAL PRINCIPLES METHODS Peripheral nerve blocks and/or continuous perineural catheters can be used in the management of both Peripheral nerve blocks should be performed only by acute and chronic pain. They are especially effective practitioners who have a thorough understanding of in the perioperative period when a balanced, multi- the relevant functional neuroanatomy, surrounding modal therapeutic approach is used. Perioperative anatomic landmarks, and the resources and skills to techniques can be used as the sole anesthetic or in handle potential complications. Except in pediatric or unusual cases, nerve blockade should not BENEFITS AND RISKS be performed under general anesthesia. Specific nerve blocks also carry site-specific of sensory and motor blockade. Evidence suggests that bupivacaine is TABLE 21–1 Effects of Additives on Neural Blockade MEDICATION DOSE EFFECT COMMENT Epinephrine 1/200,000–1/400,000 Marker of intravascular injection Increased duration of action with lidocaine Increases block duration or mepivicaine Sodium bicarbonate 1cc in 10cc Decreases onset time Precipitates with bupivicaine, ropivicaine, and levobupivicaine Clonidine 0. Rarely, this block is associated anatomic location or paresthesia or with a nerve stim- with complications such as pneumothorax, seizures ulator. When a nerve stimulator is used, continued (due to intra-arterial injection), and epidural/intrathe- twitches at a current of <0. SUPRACLAVICULAR AND UPPER EXTREMITY INFRACLAVICULAR BLOCKS The brachial plexus is composed of the nerve roots Performed at the level of the cords of the brachial C5 to T1, which combine to form the superior, mid- plexus, these blocks are excellent for surgeries distal dle, and inferior trunks. Utilization of a nerve stim- form the lateral, medial, and posterior cords, which ulator is preferred. Both blocks are associated with then give off the peripheral nerves of the upper the potential risk of pneumothorax, although it is extremity (Table 21–2). INTERSCALENE BLOCK Several approaches have been described to the supra- clavicular block. One approach is to locate the sub- The interscalene block is performed predominantly clavian artery at the level of the midclavicle by for shoulder surgery. Interscalene blocks generally do palpating or using ultrasound guidance. The needle is not provide adequate coverage of the arm due to only then directed parallel to the neck until motor response partially blocking the median nerve and essentially no distal to the wrist is consistently obtained. The interscalene groove, The popularity of the infraclavicular block has formed by the bodies of the anterior and middle sca- increased with the recent description of the lateral lene muscles, is palpated at the level of C6 or the coracoid approach. A needle is directed medially and medial and 2 cm caudal from the coracoid process caudally until localization is confirmed. Likewise, rhom- lary block because of better patient tolerance, decreased boid/trapezius movement demonstrates a needle tourniquet pain, lower incidence of incomplete block, directed too far posteriorly. These are expected with an AXILLARY BLOCK TABLE 21–2 Upper Extremity Nerve Distribution The axillary block is frequently performed for surger- ies distal to the elbow. Once the axillary artery is NERVE MOTOR SENSATION identified, several techniques can be performed to Musculocutaneous Arm flexion Lateral forearm locate the nerves: perivascular, transarterial, paresthe- Median Lateral deviation of Medial aspect of palm wrist and grip of including thumb and sia, or nerve stimulation. Pressure on the arm Ulnar Medial deviation of Medial forearm and distal to the injection site may be helpful in promot- wrist and grip of lateral aspect of hand 4th and 5th fingers including 4th and 5th ing proximal spread.
Many centers have tissue banks closely associated with them so that un- frozen allograft is readily available cheap kemadrin 5 mg on-line world medicine. Our most common use of allograft is to test a Principles of Burn Surgery 149 questionable wound bed cheap kemadrin 5 mg with visa treatment jones fracture. In excisions that need to be carried down near tendons, bone, or fascia of questionable viability, we will cover the area with allograft; if the allograft takes, we can assume the bed is viable and will accept autograft. Our overall use of allograft has diminished because we have had tremendous success with the use of Integra as our primary, temporary wound coverage. Integra Integra is a bilayer material: the inner layer is a combination of bovine collagen and glycosaminoglycan chondroitin-6-sulfate; the outer layer is a polysiloxane polymer that functions as a temporary epidermis. Integra was developed in the early 1980s by researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital and Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology, and is now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in life-threatening burns. Early studies of its use found no significant immunoreactivity [21,22], which led to its adoption as a viable temporary wound coverage. Many studies support tout its is for massive burns [23,24], purpura fulminans, neck contracture, burn scars [27,28], and other complex wounds [29–31]. At the University of Washington Burn Center we have used Integra on over 100 patients and have placed it on every part of the body except the face, palms, and soles of the feet. We believe it provides our patients with better long-term skin integrity, pliability, durability, and cosmetic results. Our process for the application of Integra on an excised burn wound is outlined below: 1. Integra is prepared for use in the operating room following the manufac- turers recommendations. It is then meshed 1:1 and applied to an excised bed that is clean and hemostatic. It is imperative that all areas of the bed be able to provide an adequate blood supply to the Integra. The meshed Integra is then applied without opening the interstices of the mesh, and great care is taken to ensure that no wrinkles are present. The sheets of Integra are held in place with staples, then Spandage (Medi-Tech International Corp. Theareasarethencoveredwithgauzedressingsand5%mafenideacetate is applied immediately, and added every 4 h to keep the dressing soaked. Areas where Integra is over joints are splinted with temporary devices that allow the 5% mafenide acetate to be applied. On postoperative day 4, the dressings are removed down to the Span- dage and any fluid under the Integra is expelled. Dressings are changed every 3 days and administration of 5% mafenide acetate continues until autograft is applied. On or about postoperative day 14 Integra is usually ready to be grafted. It will be adherent, have a somewhat contracted appearance, and will have a pink tone of varying degrees throughout. A synthetic, meshed dressing (Conformant, Smith & Nephew, Largo, FL) is used to cover the grafted area and is held in place with staples. Dressings, as described above, with 5% mafenide acetate then cover the Conformant. By postoperative day 7, good graft take is appreciated and range- of-motion exercises are begun. Thinly meshed autograft gives us excellent results with minimal residual mesh pattern, good skin durability, excellent skin pliability, and happy patients (Fig. TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC AREAS OF THE BODY Not all areas of the body are as easy to excise and graft as others. It is fortunate that the perineum and perianal areas are burned infrequently as these are the most Principles of Burn Surgery 151 FIGURE8 Autograft meshed 2:1 placed on the Integra after removal of the Silastic membrane. Integra is an option for wound coverage in all of the areas described below.
Important social factors will need to be prop- erly evaluated for their potential to generate new types of treatment or styles of management buy 5mg kemadrin otc treatment norovirus. On the basis of existing evidence about the effective- ness of the model generic kemadrin 5 mg on line medications you cant crush, it is increasingly clear that an integration of sociocultural factors is essential to achieving positive outcomes, relieving suffering, and diffusing action from the narrow medicalization of pain, in ongoing pro- grams of care. A MODEL OF THE PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IMPLICATED IN THE ETIOLOGY AND MAINTENANCE OF CHRONICALLY PAINFUL ILLNESS Although health professionals who work in pain research and practice have become pioneers in the design and running of smoothly functioning multi- disciplinary teams, it is arguable that when examining the key social influ- ences that affect pain and pain behavior, we have been slow to draw on contributions from the wider range of social science disciplines available, and to extend and apply them to improve our understanding of the pain re- sponse and its management. SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON PAIN RESPONSE 183 the social factors that affect pain, illness, and treatments, with the aim of il- luminating the inherently complex interaction between a pain sufferer and their psychosocial environment. Furthermore, it is not possible to do this properly without taking a multidisciplinary approach but within the per- spective of a different but overlapping set of disciplines. The model developed by Skevington (1995) proposes four levels of un- derstanding that provide a framework within which the social aspects of chronic pain may be better appreciated, and this is shown in Fig. Level 1 defines the individual processes affected by social influences, such as per- ceived bodily sensations. In contrast, Level 2 characterizes salient interper- sonal behaviors, in particular, that person’s relationship with significant others. Level 3 defines group and intergroup behaviors such as group be- liefs, experience, and influences, whereas Level 4 encompasses some of the higher order factors that affect sociopsychological processing, such as health ideology and health politics. Although reductionist, this model aims to understand the processes within each level and the relationships be- tween levels, rather than assuming that each level can be better explained by looking at the level below. The model broadens our conceptualization of chronic pain by removing the individual from his or her social and cultural “black box. The aim here is to extend the model and elab- orate it through a discussion of individual differences. Level 1: Individual Behaviors Affected by Social Processes Individual behaviors affected by social processes include a multitude of subjective factors including perceived bodily sensations, the perceived se- verity of symptoms, lifetime personal and social schema, social and per- sonal emotions, individual representations, and personal motivation. This level of analysis is probably most familiar to those who work on chronic pain, and with pain patients where internal biological and psychological fac- tors have been investigated at a micro level. Although sensations superfi- cially appear to be physiologically determined, there is now extensive cross-cultural evidence to show that pain thresholds and pain tolerance lev- els are influenced by a wide variety of different social and cultural factors (Bates, 1987; McCracken, Matthews, Tang, & Cuba, 2001; Nayak, Shiflett, Eshun, & Levine, 2000; Zborowski, 1969; also see chap. For instance, in the Hispanic culture, stoicism is highly prized (Juarez, Ferrell, & Bornemann, 1998), whereas in other cultures describing the pain in a vivid and extended detail is much more the norm (Zborowski, 1969). Reporting symptoms is known to be unreliable (Pennebaker, 1982), even when allow- ing for familial and social biasing influences that further explain the cross- F I G. M o d e l o f t h e p s y c h o s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s a n d s o c i a l f a c t o r s i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f a c h r o n i c a l l y p a i n f u l i l l n e s s. Mechanic (1986) underscored this view when he suggested that sociocultural and sociopsychological factors affect the reporting of pain and illness. Indeed, according to Mechanic, cultural differ- ences cannot be explained by learning and personality alone, but also re- quire an appreciation of the sector of society to which people belong. Me- chanic’s observation raises interesting questions about how those working in pain might better explore social identity with their patients, and at the same time provides a link to a higher level of analysis in this model. Pain severity also affects decisions about whether, when, and from whom to seek health care, and consequently has economic as well as social implica- tions for mechanisms of health care delivery (Foster & Mallik, 1998). How- ever, contrary to popular belief, people do not always seek help for their health when they are “sickest,” but are more likely to do this when the symp- toms interfere with their lives (Zola, 1973). Indeed, the point at which some- body obtains professional help may in some cases be a factor contributing to the transition from mild to severe pain, if the delay is considerable. Concep- tually, it is worth considering the relationship between acute anxiety and de- pression, and the perceived severity of symptoms, as this combination is known to be a springboard to seeking help from others, whether this is self- referral to health professionals (Ingham & Miller, 1979), the utilization of lay networks, or help from alternative, spiritual, and other sources. The way that individual pain patients behave is guided by how they see themselves, the way they organize knowledge about their bodies, the na- ture of the pain, the availability and accessibility of care, and information that determines whether treatments prescribed are acceptable. Abstract concepts, or schemata, are theories that pain patients hold about pain and treatment that influence the ways in which they selectively absorb new knowledge, remember it, and make use of it, to make sense of their painful experience and to inform decision making. Reality is structured and simpli- fied, and these schemata mix and interpret past and present experience. In- vestigating and systematically recording the nature of these key concepts, and how those about the painful experience are stored and organized in the memory, allows us to better understand how patients think and therefore more readily anticipate what they may or may not do as a consequence. This is particularly important when trying to maximize concordance with medical advice or in outlining pain management strategies.
Our intent in this chapter is to provide an overview and critical analysis of the traditional biomedical and psychodynamic models purchase kemadrin 5mg with amex medications dialyzed out, summarize ele- ments of the gate control theory that strongly influenced current conceptu- alizations of pain purchase kemadrin 5 mg online treatment 2 lung cancer, and review important details of models that fall under the biopsychosocial rubric. Within the context of the latter, we include discus- sion of some of the most influential behavioral, cognitive, and cognitive- behavioral models and associated empirical findings. We conclude by posit- ing a synthesis of the various iterations of the biopsychosocial approach, place this in the context of a comprehensive diathesis–stress model (i. TRADITIONAL BIOMEDICAL MODEL The traditional biomedical model of pain dates back hundreds of years. Descartes (1596–1650) modernized it in the 17th century (Bonica, 1990; Turk, 1996a), and in that form it held considerable influence through to the mid 20th century. The model holds, in essence, that pain is a sensory experi- ence that results from stimulation of specific noxious receptors, usually from physical damage due to injury or disease (see Fig. Consider the case of Jamie, a middle-aged person with strained muscles in the low back. BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACHES TO PAIN 37 diagnosing and subsequently treating Jamie should be, for all practical pur- poses (and notwithstanding availability of adequate diagnostic, surgical, and pharmacologic technology), straightforward. Jamie’s physical pathol- ogy would be confirmed by data obtained from objective tests of physical damage and, if thorough, tests of impairment. Medical interventions would then be directed toward rectifying the muscle strain. The impact of the strain on Jamie’s social, psychological, and behavioral functioning would not be given much weight in any intervention. Indeed, other symptoms re- ported by Jamie, such as depressed mood, hypervigilance to somatic sensa- tions, and pain, would not be viewed as significant but, rather, as secondary reactions to (or symptoms of) the muscle strain. In Jamie’s case, intervention was targeted at healing the muscle strain and all symptoms subsided within 5 weeks. But, for every Jamie there is an- other person for whom application of an identical intervention does not re- solve pain and other symptoms, including disability, despite eventual heal- ing of physical pathology. As becomes evident in this chapter, the reductionistic and exclusionary assumptions of the biomedical models have not been upheld. We now know that pain involves more than sensa- tion arising from physical pathology. Indeed, many people with persistent pain, including perhaps the majority with low back pain, will never have had an identifiable medical diagnosis of tissue damage. Most 20th-century models of pain, including amendments to the tradi- tional biomedical model (e. For example, they posited a primary role for sensation and did not recognize the possibility that sensation and affect might be proc- essed in parallel (Craig, 1984). Still, they demarcated a beginning to the rec- ognition of the interplay between biological, psychological, and sociocul- tural factors in the pain experience. Before turning attention to integrated multidimensional models of pain, we lay more of the groundwork by taking a look at models of the psychodynamic tradition. PSYCHODYNAMIC MODELS The psychodynamic model can be considered to be among the first to posit a central role for psychological factors in pain (see Merskey & Spear, 1967), albeit with an emphasis on persistent (or chronic) rather than acute pres- entations. These models are similar in that, unlike the traditional biomed- 38 ASMUNDSON AND WRIGHT ical model, they shift focus from physical pathology by conceptualizing per- sistent pain as an expression of emotional conflict. Rather than review all of the psychodynamic models, we provide an overview of the influential mod- els of Freud (Breuer & Freud, 1893–1895/1957) and Engel (1959). Freud (Breuer & Freud, 1893–1895/1957) held that persistent pain was maintained by an emotional loss or conflict, most often at the unconscious level. Central to Freud’s model was the process of conversion, or express- ing emotional pain (i. Freud be- lieved that the somatic expression of pain would subside with resolution of the emotional issues. These ideas have been subsequently modified and adapted by other theorists working within the framework of the psycho- dynamic tradition. In 1959 Engel introduced the concepts of psychogenic pain and the pain- prone personality to further explain the nature of persistent pain.
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