By N. Riordian. Nicholls State University. 2018.
Because the amount of ATP formed from glycolysis is decreased by 50% cheap 30mg procardia with amex cardiovascular case study, red blood cell ion transporters cannot function effectively purchase procardia 30mg with visa heart disease over 65. The red blood cells tend to gain Ca2 and lose K and water. The water loss increases the intracellular hemoglobin concentration. With the increase in intracellular hemoglobin concentration, the internal viscosity of the cell is increased to the point that the cell becomes rigid and, therefore, more susceptible to damage by shear forces in the circulation. Once damaged, the red blood cells are removed from circulation, leading to the anemia. However, the effects of the anemia are frequently moder- ated by the twofold to threefold elevation in 2,3-BPG concentration that results from the blockage of the conversion of phosphoenol pyruvate to pyruvate. Because 2,3-BPG binding to hemoglobin decreases the affinity of hemoglobin of oxygen, the red blood cells that remain in circu- lation are highly efficient in releasing their bound oxygen to the tissues. The NADPH is globin, is found in people with an used to maintain glutathione in the reduced state. The glutathione cycle is the red enzymatic deficiency in cytochrome b5 red- blood cell’s chief defense against damage to proteins and lipids by reactive oxygen uctase or in people who have inherited hem- species (see Chapter 24). In hemoglobin M, a single amino The enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the hexose monophosphate shunt is acid substitution in the heme-binding pocket stabilizes the ferric (Fe 3) oxygen. The lifetime of the red blood cell cor- als with congenital methemoglobinemia relates with G6PD activity. Lacking ribosomes, the red blood cell cannot synthesize appear cyanotic but have few clinical prob- new G6PD protein. Consequently, as the G6PD activity decreases, oxidative damage lems. Methemoglobinemia can be acquired accumulates, leading to lysis of the erythrocyte. When red blood cell lysis (hemoly- by ingestion of certain oxidants such as sis) substantially exceeds the normal rate of red blood cell production, the number of nitrites, quinones, aniline, and sulfon- erythrocytes in the blood drops below normal values, leading to a hemolytic anemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia can be treated by the administration of reducing B. The Erythrocyte Precursor Cells and Heme Synthesis agents, such as ascorbic acid or methylene blue. HEME STRUCTURE Heme consists of a porphyrin ring coordinated with an atom of iron (Fig. G6PD deficiency is the most com- Four pyrrole rings are joined by methionyl bridges (—CH—) to form the porphyrin mon enzyme deficiency known in ring (see Fig. Eight side chains serve as substituents on the porphyrin ring, humans, probably, in part, because two on each pyrrole. These side chains may be acetyl (A), propionyl (P), methyl individuals with G6PD deficiency are resist- (M), or vinyl (V) groups. In heme, the order of these groups is M V M V M P P M. The resistance to malaria This order, in which the position of the methyl group is reversed on the fourth ring, counterbalances the deleterious effects of the deficiency. G6PD-deficient red cells have is characteristic of the porphyrins of the type III series, the most abundant in nature. It is complexed with under conditions of oxidative stress. When proteins to form hemoglobin, myoglobin, and the cytochromes (see Chapters 7 and soldiers during the Korean War were given 21), including cytochrome P450 (see Chapter 24). SYNTHESIS OF HEME African ancestry developed a spontaneous anemia. Because the gene for G6PD is found Heme is synthesized from glycine and succinyl CoA (Fig. The enzyme one copy of a variant G6PD gene that catalyzes this reaction, -ALA synthase, requires the participation of pyridoxal All known G6PD variant genes contain phosphate, as the reaction is an amino acid decarboxylation reaction (glycine is small in-frame deletions or missense muta- decarboxylated; see Chapter 39). The corresponding proteins, therefore, The next reaction of heme synthesis is catalyzed by -ALA dehydratase, in have decreased stability or lowered activity, which two molecules of -ALA condense to form the pyrrole, porphobilinogen leading to a reduced half-life or lifespan for (Fig.
For some fam- ilies purchase procardia 30 mg on-line cardiovascular disease and hypertension, this works well 30 mg procardia amex heart disease for cats, but for others, it does not. The therapist who takes on the role of coach of a child’s motor impair- ment management team has to develop a good relationship with the family and child. In general, this relationship does not work well if the parent or child does not like the therapist. Also, the therapist has to have some under- standing of behavior management techniques to get the most cooperation from a child. Being aware of medical and other family issues is also important. The physical therapist should understand how to access social services and medical help in the community that may be needed by the family. One of the problems of this expanded role of pediatric therapists is that many therapists do not believe they have the training needed to take on this role. Most phys- ical therapy training programs are at the master’s degree level; however, the amount of training in pediatrics is minimal in many programs where there is a much greater allure to sports medicine and other adult rehabilitation di- rections. This experience mirrors what happens in orthopaedic training. Currently, there are a few well-developed specialty training programs for pe- diatric therapists, and none as well organized as the fellowship programs in pediatric orthopaedics. The trend to standardize this pediatric training is moving ahead and should train therapists who are much better equipped to take on the role in which they are currently expected to function. Many of these protocols have high regional concentrations of use, often in the area in which the sys- tem was initially developed and popularized. The same theories of therapy are widely used among both occupational and physical therapy. Neurodevelopmental Treatment Approach (NDT): Bobath Technique The NDT treatment approach was developed in England in the 1940s and 1950s by Dr. Bobath based on their understanding of neurologic development and experience gained in treating children. Based on the hierarchical concept of under- standing development, this approach focused first on correcting abnormal tone through the use of range-of-motion exercises, encouraging normal mo- tor patterns, and positioning. Second, abnormal primitive reflexes are ad- dressed through the use of extinction by repeated stimulation. Another ex- ample is neck flexion as the child is falling backward to prevent the head from hitting. Altering sensory input by careful handling and positioning is also an important aspect to achieving the first three goals. By having the child experience only normal movements, the brain will gradually remember the normal movements and forget the ab- normal postures used by the immature brain. The requirement of very early treatment, under the theory that the more immature the brain is, the more it can be influenced to develop normally, is also stressed in NDT therapy. Another important aspect of this treatment is the insistence that the parents learn, and at all times apply, these correct handling techniques. In the earlier years of the technique, there was great focus on idealized movements, such as the perfect way to come to a sitting position from lying; however, focus has more recently been on functional patterns that work for the child. The outcome of research has largely failed to show the benefits proposed by the founders of NDT techniques. Compared with other therapy techniques, or no therapy, there are few significant specific functional gains from the NDT approach. Despite the marginal evidence for direct benefit, NDT still has a widespread use, with some ther- apists maintaining the missionary zeal of avoiding specific movements in a child, such as extensor posturing. These therapists also focus on the children having correct crawling before they can stand or walk, and having them walk correctly with a walker before they can walk independently. This kind of missionary rigidity is inappropriate, and parents can be informed that they do not need to feel guilty when things do not happen exactly as the therapist requests. Because the objective data supporting the efficacy of NDT treat- ment are marginal, there is very little role for enforcing these concepts rigidly, although they may be perfectly legitimate techniques to help teach children correct movement. Therapy, Education, and Other Treatment Modalities 155 Sensory Motor Treatment Approach: The Rood Technique The sensory motor treatment approach was developed by Margaret Rood in the United States during the 1950s.
The change in F-DOPA Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker generic 30mg procardia visa cardiovascular system company, Inc purchase procardia 30 mg on-line blood vessels histology slides. Note the 123 asymmetric reduction in [ I]b-CIT uptake more marked in the putamen than caudate in the patient and the progressive loss of activity. Levels of SPECTactivity are color-encoded from low (black) to high (yellow/white). The most important role of longitudinal imaging studies is to provide a tool to assess objectively potential neuroprotective and restorative therapies for PD. Imaging studies assessing progression of disease have provided data to estimate sample sizes required to detect slowing of disease progression due to study drug treatment. The sample size required depends on the effect of the disease-modifying drug and the duration of exposure to the drug. The effect of the drug is generally expressed as the percent reduction in rate of loss of the imaging marker in the group treated with the study drug versus a control group. More speciﬁcally, imaging studies have 18 sought a reduction of between 25 and 50% in the rate of loss of F-DOPA 123 or [ I]b-CIT uptake (i. The sample size needed to detect a 25–50% reduction in the rate of loss of F- DOPA or b-CIT uptake during a 24-month interval ranges from approximately 30 to 120 research subjects in each study arm (85,93). These data support the use of dopamine neuroreceptor imaging to assess the effects of potential neuroprotective drugs in PD, but there are several caveats in the study design and interpretation of these studies. It must be acknowledged that imaging outcomes in studies of PD patients are biomarkers for brain activity, but are not true surrogates for drug effects in PD patients (94). These investiga- tional drugs may have effects on dopamine neurons unrelated to slowed neuronal degeneration and may have effects outside the dopaminergic system. The rate of change in imaging outcomes used to measure disease progression is slow, reﬂecting the slow clinical progression in PD and requiring the duration of these progression studies to be at least 18–24 months. In a recent study evaluating potential disease modifying effects of Neuroimmunophilin A, the study duration of 6 months resulted in an equivocal outcome necessitating a second, longer study to clarify the drug effects (95). Progressive loss in brain dopaminergic imaging activity also occurs in aging healthy individuals, though at a rate approxi- mately one-tenth that of PD patients (13,29). The reliability of the imaging outcomes must be assessed. Recent test-retest studies using current technology and analyses metho- dology show good test-retest reproducibility of approximately 3– 18 5% for F-DOPA or VMAT2 studies and 5–7% for b-CIT SPECT (95–97). Imaging outcomes of disease progression may be confounded by pharmacological effects of the study drug. In preclinical studies evaluation of the effect of dopamine agonists and antagonists and levodopa suggest possible regulation of both the DAT and dopamine turnover (32,98). The relevance of these studies to human imaging studies is questionable due to short duration of exposure to drugs, suprapharmacological dosing, and species differences. In another approach to assess regulation, in one of the few clinical studies comparing imaging ligands within subjects, 35 11 PD patients and 16 age-matched controls imaged with C- 18 methylphenidate (a dopamine transporter ligand), F-DOPA and 11 C-dihydrotetrabenazine (a vesicular transporter ligand), demon- strated reduction in DAT which is greater than vesicular transporter which is greater than F-DOPA uptake. These data suggest that differential regulation of these imaging targets might occur in a progressively denervated striatum (14). These data were also consistent with the presumed upregulation of dopamine 18 turnover in normal aging reﬂected in the lack of change in F- DOPA imaging in aging healthy subjects (99). Other studies have more directly assessed the potential short-term regulation of imaging ligands by common PD medications. Available data does Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. In the CALM-PD CIT study there was no signiﬁcant change in b-CIT uptake after 10 weeks of treatment with either pramipexole (1. In a similar study treatment with pergolide for 6 weeks also showed no signiﬁcant 123 changes in [ I]b-CIT striatal, putamen, or caudate uptake, but 123 an insigniﬁcant trend toward increased [ I]b-CIT uptake (103). Data assessing RTI-32, another DAT ligand, demonstrated signiﬁcant reductions from baseline in striatal DAT after 6 weeks of treatment with both levodopa and pramipexole, but also with placebo, and this pilot study could not detect differences between 18 the treatment and placebo (104). There was no effect on F- DOPA uptake in a study of ﬁve patients with restless legs syndrome who had been treated with levodopa (105). While these clinical studies do not demonstrate signiﬁcant regulation of the 18 DAT or F-DOPA uptake, they do not exclude a signiﬁcant short-term treatment-induced change in DAT, nor do they address the possibility that pharmacological effects may emerge in long- term studies. Despite these caveats in interpretation of imaging results, neuroreceptor ligand biomarkers have become an increasingly useful method to assess the potential disease modifying effects of experimental drugs for PD.
It is difﬁcult to reconcile that individuals suffering from a progressively disabling disorder would live longer than the matched general population buy procardia 30mg line cardiovascular disease jokes. The most common error in the better-than-expected survival studies is measuring survival from the date of onset assigned several years retrospectively buy 30 mg procardia cardiovascular system trivia. During that period, the general population would have suffered some death. That gives the PS group an artiﬁcial advantage, since they survived at least to diagnosis (67). When we assessed our patients using the date of onset, the PS patients survived longer than the general population (64). The other reason for this error is inclusion of only LD- treated cases (68). For any number of reasons, some patients may not be treated with LD and those destined for longer survival may be treated with LD, which introduces a signiﬁcant bias. Longer survival has been noted by others if only the LD-treated cases were considered (28). Restricting a study to only clinically diagnosed PD and excluding other variants introduces another source of bias, as the inaccuracy of clinical diagnosis is well known (7,21). A blinded study withholding modern drugs from one group of matched patients is not possible. In a clinic-based study of 934 PS cases seen between 1968 and 1990 (64,69), survival measured from the date of ﬁrst assessment was signiﬁcantly reduced (p < 0. This study (64,69) also considered the impact of widespread and easy access to LD (regardless of cost) on the survival. Prior to January 1, 1974, LD was available almost exclusively to patients seen at the Movement Disorder Clinic Saskatoon (MDCS). When survival in patients assessed before this date was compared to the expected survival, reduction was even more pronounced (p < 0. There was no difference in the use of other drugs, which may explain the survival differences (64,69). The survival is negatively impacted in patients with dementia (61,69,70) and in those with a PS diagnosis other than PD. The most favorable prognosis was in the patients diagnosed as PD who had no dementia at initial assessment (64,69). The timing of treatment with LD indicates that survival beneﬁt is achieved only when patients are treated prior to the loss of postural reﬂexes (58,64,71). Similar observations of longer survival in patients with early LD treatment have been reported by others (62). When Figs 1 and 2 are considered together, it is evident that the survival gap between current PS cases and the general population has narrowed (p ¼ 0. This gain in life expectancy is attributable exclusively to the better symptomatic control on LD, which Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. FIGURE 1 Comparison of survival in parkinsonian patients with unrestricted levodopa availability (Obs. FIGURE 2 Comparison of survival in parkinsonian patients who had severely restricted access to levodopa (Obs. We estimate that an average patient with PD onset at age 62 now lives for approximately 20 years. The survival is shorter in other degenerative diseases associated with PS (17,22). Average survival from onset of PSP is approximately 9 years (72), although rare cases may live for 24 years after onset (22). Prevalence of Parkinsonism The prevalence rate is deﬁned as the number of PS patients in the 5 population at a given time and is usually described as cases per 10. The term point prevalence implies prevalence rate on a particular date. The two main factors that determine the prevalence rate are the incidence of new cases and the life expectancy. If the number of new cases emerged at a constant rate but the life expectancy increased, the prevalence rate would rise. Several different methods have been used to determine PS prevalence rate. These include review of all the health records in a given community, consumption of antiparkinson drugs (73,74), direct survey of population, and indirect measurement by multiplying incidence rate with mean survival.
Also buy cheap procardia 30mg on-line arteries plaque, there is a technique for using the neurodevelopmental treatment approach to teach swimming to children with CP procardia 30mg without prescription heart disease 28. Hydrotherapy is a reasonable adjunctive modality to use in planning a therapy program for a child. Swimming as a recreational activity is excellent for individuals with CP. For many children who have a high-energy demand of walking in middle childhood, learning to swim and using this as the physical conditioning ex- ercise is an excellent option. A major problem for individuals whose main motor ability is by wheelchair is finding an exercise technique that can be performed comfortably but still provide cardiovascular stress. Swimming is a primary option for many of these individuals. If a childhood swimming program teaches children to be comfortable in water and learn to swim, there will potentially be lifelong benefits. There are some children with diplegia who can learn to become competitive swimmers and even compete with nor- mal age-matched peers. Therapy, Education, and Other Treatment Modalities 175 Martial Arts The martial arts are an excellent choice for some children, even those who require assistive devices for walking. The routines in martial arts are usually individualized for the speed at which a child can learn; many of the routines also stress balance reaction, stretching, and large joint range of motion. Also, there is a clear system for making progressive steps with awarding levels of achievement, which is a great motivator for many children. The training for the martial arts occurs in community locations with regular community peers, which is another major advantage. The main problem with the mar- tial arts is the difficulty in finding instructors who are interested in teaching individuals with disabilities. Another problem of the martial arts for individ- uals who become very enthused about the sport is that at the higher levels of skill the motor impairments also make advancement very difficult. Sports Encouraging children with CP to get involved with typical age-matched sport activities is an excellent alternative to medically based therapy programs, especially for children with motor skills that allow them to enjoy the activ- ity. Physical therapists are in an excellent position to recommend to families specific sporting activities that would likely work for their children. For am- bulatory young children, the beginner soccer programs work well. For chil- dren with a need to work on balance and motor control, dance programs are an excellent option. Acupuncture Acupuncture with functional training has been reported to increase both children’s motor function and cognitive function. Apparently, the acupuncture meridians are closely related to the Vojta massage points, and there is a suggestion that both techniques may be stimulating the same sys- tem. The use of pressure point manipulation by acupressure causes no harm if it is not uncomfortable to the children; however, there is no clear objective benefit of acupressure. Massage and Myofascial Release Therapy A major aspect of the Vojta technique of therapy is stimulation through a se- ries of massage points. There has been increased use of massage by some therapists, including borrowing techniques from chiropractors. Myofascial release therapy is one such technique that has been developed emanating from chiropractor practice. Although myofascial release therapy is not usu- ally described as massage, it is in fact a massage program with a minimal joint range of motion component. There are no English-language reports on the specific efficacy of massage compared with no therapy or other therapy modalities. Benefit has been reported for massage, reflexology, and other manipulations that are widely used in Eastern Europe and Russia. If the therapy is in any way uncomfortable for these children, it cannot be jus- tified based on currently available data.
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